Asthma is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in which the airways (bronchial tubes) enter the lungs, causing a narrowing of the airways, resulting in a persistent cough, shortness of breath, and sometimes shortness of breath. In this article we will discuss definition of asthma and it’s causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment etc.
In the United States, about 500,000 people are hospitalized each year for asthma, more than 4,000 of whom die.
Asthma is most often found in children; It usually begins before the age of five, although it can begin in adolescence or adulthood. More than 6 percent of people in the United States have asthma, and the incidence is increasing.
The cause of the increase has not been reported, but it is more common in urban and Hispanic and African-American children. However, up to half of children with asthma are more likely to undergo adequate treatment and environmental control.
Asthma is Respiratory disorders and inflammation of the nasopharynx and excess mucus can also be difficult to treat. breathe.
Asthma affects approximately 7% of the US population and kills 4,210 people each year. Although it occurs at all ages, it is most common in children under the age of 10.
Among affected children, there is a ratio of 2: 1 for men and women, equal to 30.1 years. The most common reasons for developing asthma include the following.
- Increased stress on the immune system, such as severe air, water, allergies to insects (usually dust bites), and food.
- Introduce early breastfeeding and introduce solid foods to babies
- Food supplements
- Genetic manipulation of plants can cause food allergies and certain genetic variants can make certain individuals more susceptible to asthma.
- Frequent bouts of shortness of breath, cough, and runny nose
- Prolonged exposure to general breathing and abnormal breath sounds
- Allergic laboratory symptoms (increased blood eosinophils, increased blood cell IgE, positive food and or respiratory allergy tests)
What Asthma Causes
Some people still don’t understand why they develop asthma when exposed to certain substances and conditions, while others don’t.
There is no genetic predisposition, but a child with a parent with asthma has a 25 percent risk of developing asthma. Both parents have a 50 percent risk of developing asthma. The high incidence of African American and Hispanic children may be due to the socioeconomic situation of the cities.
Frequent exposure to irritants can cause chronic inflammation of the lining of the airways that carry air to the lungs.
Excessive amounts of mucus can form, further disrupting the airways. Exposure to dust mites, especially young children, is associated with asthma associated with animal fur (skin, hair, and feathers) and saliva. Mold and pollen can also cause allergic reactions to grass and trees.
Other known irritants include cigarette smoke, air pollution, fragrances, cold air, and strong smells from paint or cooking. Viral infections, anxiety, depression, and even prolonged crying or laughing can aggravate an attack, and exercise and weather changes can trigger a seizure.
Sulfides, which is used as a preservative in processed foods and beverages, such as nuts, wine, or beer, can produce tartaric acid in foods and pills. Medications, such as beta-blockers, are known to increase or increase the risk of developing asthma symptoms, and active chemicals and dust can trigger attacks. Occasionally, there is no known cause, especially in children.
Asthma is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
The most dangerous form of asthma is a history of allergies such as atopic dermatitis and hay fever. The presence of acne is three to four times more likely to cause asthma. Allergic and immune responses are clearly involved in asthma.
A special imbalance is an increase in the number or function of special white blood cells called Th2 helper TT. These cells eventually release compounds that increase allergic reactions.
Both external and internal factors trigger the release of toxins from the body.
Firefighters are responsible for the signs and symptoms of asthma. They are preformed into primers in small packages or are derived from fatty acids that live on cell membranes.
Preoperative mediators include compounds known as histamine and leukotrienes. These compounds are responsible for triggering many allergic reactions in asthma.
Some leukocytes are 1,000 times more potent than histamine, causing bronchitis and allergies. Asthma patients have been shown to have higher levels of white blood cells.
This abnormality is aggravated in patients with aspirin-induced asthma. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as indomethacin and ibuprofen) can cause an overdose in people who are at risk.
Tarzazine (yellow # 5) has similar effects on white blood cells and is often the cause of asthma, especially in children. Tarzazine is found in many processed foods, including vitamin preparations and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Tarzazine can also indirectly help vitamin B6 and help asthma.
Hope you understand What Asthma Causes later we will discuss about asthma diagnosis. Keep in touch.
Asthma Symptoms in adults
Symptoms vary widely. Some people are relatively free of occasional respiratory symptoms if the trigger does not trigger an attack.
Others cough and sneeze constantly. The old symptoms were shortness of breath accompanied by loud noises. Sometimes coughing is the only symptom and not all breathing is caused by asthma. In severe attacks, a small amount of air enters the lungs or there is no breathing.
The individual or the child’s parents can contribute to the diagnosis by providing a list of symptoms and interpretations along with a family medical history of allergies, asthma, or other respiratory problems.
A complete physical exam is performed and lung function can be checked in patients older than five years, in which a device called a spirometer shows how much air can be inhaled from the lungs after breathing. And at what speed. Other tests, such as a bronchoscopy test or a stress test, can also be done with a spirometer.
Frequent allergy tests show allergies to those responsible for asthma, and other tests can rule out similar symptoms, such as cystic fibrosis.
The US National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Asthma Diagnosis and Treatment Guide Screening for asthma begins by determining whether any of the following indicators are present.
- Screaming (whistling loudly on the exhale), especially in children. (Shortness of breath and regular chest exam do not distinguish asthma.)
- Cough with any of the following symptoms, especially at night, worsening breathing, frequent breathing problems, frequent chest congestion,
- Symptoms that occur or worsen during exercise Viral infections from exercise Animals from hair or hair dust (mattresses, pillows, upholstered furniture, carpets) Mold Smoke (tobacco or wood) Pollen climate change Strong emotional expressions (laughing or crying) Strong) The onset of menstruation due to chemicals in the air or dust
- Symptoms occur at night or worsen, wake up patient. Determination of respiratory function with a spirometer plays a central role in treating asthma and should be done at the beginning of treatment and after symptoms have disappeared. Symptoms get worse, every month or two, every month.
Hope you understand about Asthma Diagnosis.
Treatment and control
We talked about What Asthma Causes just before & now we will talk about its treatment.
There is no cure for asthma, but it can be controlled with a variety of medications. Medicines called remedies provide quick relief from asthma attacks.
Long-acting antidepressants reduce the risk of chronic inflammation in the lining of the airways and reduce daily discomfort.
Relievers, also known as bronchodilators, are taken right away if there are signs of a cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath, or shortness of breath. They work in minutes and last four to six hours. The most commonly used bronchodilators are called beta-2 agonists.
These mainly affect the lungs during breathing, which means fewer side effects. Another type of antidepressant, known as a blood thinner, can be given after an emergency with beta-2 loupes to further expand the airways and reduce mucus production.
Some bronchodilators are long-acting medications that last at least 12 hours and are used to prevent symptoms before exercising or breathing in cold air and before going to bed. These long-acting beta-2 agninos are often used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids.
A theophylline bronchodilator has long been prescribed for mild to moderate asthma. Taken daily as a pill, lozenge, or permanent-release syrup, it is especially effective in reducing symptoms during sleep.
Initially, it can cause side effects, including abnormal fast heartbeat, restlessness, anxiety, or headaches, but these usually go away as the body adjusts. Blood levels should be monitored regularly to determine if the dose is adequate.
If the dose is too low, the symptoms will not be adequately controlled, and if it is not high enough, severe heart palpitations or seizures may occur, as well as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Aminophylline is more powerful but similar to the bronchodilator, which is only given intravenously in emergencies. Long-term treatments, corticosteroids, or contraceptives are used for severe asthma.
Corticosteroids are considered the most effective preventive medicine because they are anti-inflammatory and therefore reduce swelling in the lining of the airways.
If used for a long period of time, there is a risk of serious side effects, such as cataracts, osteoporosis, and resistance to infection, but corticosteroids are generally administered directly to the airways and these effects are reduced.
However, inhaled corticosteroids can sometimes temporarily affect children’s development. For people with moderate asthma, a group of anti-inflammatory drugs called lucotrine supplements can ease the need for corticosteroids.
They serve as protection against attacks, not as a means to an end. These drugs block the release of substances during an attack that causes more inflammation in the airways. They can be used in combination with other medications, including corticosteroids for severe asthma.
Cromolyn (Nasalcrom) and nedocromil (Tilade) are now considered the most dangerous asthma medications for mild or moderate asthma and are often prescribed as a precautionary measure before exercise. For people with mild or moderate asthma, long-term daily use of these medications can reduce airway inflammation and prevent attacks. Allergic reactions to allergens, such as pollen, insect repellants, or mold, can reduce the risk of allergic reactions.
When exposed to allergens, the immune system produces proteins called antibodies. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is an antibody that is often associated with respiratory allergies.
New immunoglobulin E injections are being developed to prevent allergic reactions if allergens are not absorbed into cells.
The significant increases in asthma over the past 20 years can be explained in part by the reduction of anti-inflammatory nutrients such as beta-carotene and vitamins A, C and E, as well as the mineral compounds necessary for anti-inflammatory measures. Like zinc, selenium and copper.
Patients with severe asthma have been shown to have low blood pressure. Genetic influences can also influence the need for antimicrobials. A study of 158 children with moderate to severe asthma found that 50 mg of vitamin E per day and 250 mg of vitamin C per day were effective in preventing deterioration of lung function.
Antioxidants are believed to provide important protection against oxidizing agents that stimulate bronchoconstriction and increase resistance to other agents.
Acetaminophen, which is known to reduce antioxidants such as glutathione in animals, should be used with caution in asthma patients.
Vitamin C Vitamin C is essential for respiratory health because it is the main antioxidant in the extracellular fluid that lines the airways.
For asthma Low vitamin C (in food) is a risk factor. A study of 771 people with asthma, 352 people with asthma, and 15,418 people with asthma found that they had lower or lower levels of vitamin C than those with asthma today.
Extra support for children of smokers is associated with severe asthma (smoking is known to reduce levels of vitamins C and E), as well as ongoing asthma symptoms in adults due to exposure to environmental oxidizing agents and exhaustion of vitamin C.
Both treated and untreated asthma patients were found to have very low levels of serum acetic acid and leukocytes. From a medical point of view, asthma appears to be in high demand for vitamin C.
From 1973 to 1994, there were 11 clinical studies of vitamin C supplementation. Seven of these studies showed significant improvement in respiratory function and asthma symptoms from eating 1 to 2 grams of vitamin C per day.
Given the increased anti-inflammatory activity of vitamin C in the respiratory tract, this dose boost appears to be very effective.
High doses of vitamin C can also help reduce asthma levels and help with asthma. The importance of vitamin C as a natural antihistamine has raised concerns about the safety of antihistamines and the recent effects of the popular antidepressant.
In the early stages of the immune system, histamine strengthens the immune system by boosting the immune system and smooth muscle contraction, increasing the flow of the immune system to the site of infection.
Histamine then exerts a devastating effect on the accumulated white blood cells, trying to suppress the inflammatory response. Vitamin C acts on histamine in several ways. In particular, histamine stimulates the production of white blood cells and increases the production of histamine.
One study examined the short- and long-term administration of vitamin C antihistamines and their effects on neutrophil function in healthy men and women.
In the long course of the study, vitamin C took three, four, five, six and 2 grams a day 10 times a day. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of week two, four and six. After vitamin C administration, blood levels of vitamin C increased dramatically and blood histamine levels decreased by 38 percent during the weeks of vitamin C administration.
The ability of white blood cells to respond to chemotherapy increased by 19% during the administration of vitamin C and decreased by 30% after the release of vitamin C. Interestingly, these changes are related to the accumulation of histamine.
The histamine levels were very low and the chemotherapy very good. In the study of the short-term effects of vitamin C, blood histamine and chemotherapy remained unchanged four hours after ingesting vitamin C.
These results show that vitamin C reduces histamine in the blood only when taken over a period of time. People prone to allergies or inflammation are encouraged to supplement their diet with vitamin C supplements.
In a small study, bronchospasm lessons enriched with bronchospasm involved a randomized, plab-controlled, double-blind crossover examination.
Subjects entered the study on a regular basis and received vitamin C supplements (1,500 mg per day) or placebo for two weeks before switching to alternative therapy.
The vitamin C group significantly reduced FEV1 after exercise (-6.4%) compared to normal diet (-14.3%) and placebo (-12.9%). Asthma symptoms have improved significantly with vitamin C supplementation compared to placebo. Post-exercise mediators were very low on ascorbic acid supplementation.
There was also a significant reduction in urinary leukocytes in the pycnogenol group. In another study, flavonoid preparations derived from purple fruit peel (PPP) were randomized to four-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials in asthma patients. The amount of PFP is 150 mg per day.
Breathing, coughing, and shortness of breath were significantly reduced in the PIPP group, but the placebo did not improve significantly. In P.P.A. Carotene
Carotene is a powerful antioxidant that can increase the integrity of the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract and reduce inflammation.
In asthma models, lycopene supplementation interrupts allergic reactions in the bronchi, lung tissue, and blood, and reduces the amount of mucus in the airways.
In a theoretical study in humans, 32 randomized adults underwent a randomized controlled trial with 3 days and 7 days of treatment after 10 days of low temperature diet: tomato extract (45 mg of lycopene per day) and juice tomato (per day). .45 mg of lycopene).
With low calorie diets, plasma carotenoid levels have decreased, asthma control has worsened, lung function (measured by FEV1) has decreased, and sputum white blood cells (neutrophils) have increased. Treatment with tomato juice and reduced flow of neutrophils in the airways. Treatment with tomato paste also reduced the activity of sputum neutrophil elastase activity.
This short-term study suggests that antioxidant status, especially carotene, improve some asthma symptoms. Two blinded studies of lycopene supplementation (30 mg daily) in exercise-induced asthma.
One study found no benefit and another found that, in some patients, airway obstruction and shortness of breath.
Selenium has been shown to reduce selenium levels in asthma patients. Glutathione peroxide, a selenium-dependent enzyme, is necessary to reduce leukocyte secretion. Reduced glutathione peroxidase levels have also been reported in asthma patients. Supplements Selenium appears to be guaranteed to alleviate any glutathione peroxidase deficiency.
“Treatment with B12 is the leading treatment for pediatric asthma,” believes well-known physician Jonathan Wright. In a clinical trial, 1000 megawatts of muscle injections per week showed significant improvement in asthma patients.
18 out of 20 patients showed shortness of breath, improved appetite and general condition. Vitamin B12 is especially effective in people exposed to sulfate.
In 1912 p. Trendelenburg In experimental tube studies, magnesium showed a relaxed calf muscle. Subsequently, uncontrolled clinical studies showed magnesium in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis.
Magnesium in the blood (2 g of magnesium sulfate up to 24.6 g per hour) is a well-established and medically acceptable measure for stopping asthma and exacerbating chronic pneumonia (COPD).
Although these initial studies have used injectable magnesium, oral magnesium has also been shown to be effective (in cases of acute heart disease or acute asthma), although it typically takes six times more to achieve elevated tissue magnesium levels in tissue. Low plasma magnesium levels in asthma patients are found in asthma patients, and dietary magnesium supplements are associated with lung function and asthma.
Numerous double-blind studies of oral magnesium supplementation in adults and children have shown an improvement in respiratory function, increased glutathione, chemical response to methacholine, and asthma control measures and quality of life.
Doses range from 300 mg to 340 mg per day in children. In adults, usually in divided doses.
Nebulized magnesium has been found to be an effective adjunct treatment for bronchiolitis in acute asthma and is highly sensitive to life-threatening asthma.
Vitamin D deficiency is related to increased airway activity, reduced lung function, and worsening asthma control. According to a study of more than 1000 people with asthma, 35% have enough vitamin D (30 ng / ml or 25-hydroxyvitamin D).
Adequate vitamin D supplementation was associated with greater chances of hospitalization or emergency room visit after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, and treatment group. Vitamin D supplements In addition to correcting vitamin D deficiency, it can improve asthma control by blocking inflammatory proteins in the lungs.
Initial clinical evidence suggests a vitamin D3 supplement of 1,200 IU per day, especially in the prevention of childhood asthma. This study in Japan looked at the effectiveness of vitamin D supplements in preventing influenza.
Researchers were surprised to find that vitamin D flu was reduced by only 42 percent and asthma attacks were dramatically reduced by 83%.
Asthma patients use herbs to self-medicate. Analysis of asthma in 601 adults 14% of those with asthma use herbal products, coffee or black tea to treat their disease.
Unfortunately, this study shows that people who use these methods are more likely to be hospitalized.
Asthma patients are advised to consult a natural therapist or other qualified professional before using natural remedies, as they may not recognize the potential for herbal abuse and the need for urgent interventions. And you can assess the risk of asthma patients. Asthma The most famous historical herbal remedy, combined with herbal supplements, includes the use of ephedra s sinensis (ma huang).
This approach appears to be very helpful because bronchodilators are effective in treating mild to moderate asthma and hay fever. However, when overdosed as a weight loss supplement, ephedra product is no longer sold in the United States.
Ivy (Hedera Helix)
In Europe, herbal extracts derived from herald leaves (hedera helix) are very popular for relieving coughs and asthma. More than 80% of the herbal medicines prescribed in Germany in 2007 contain ivy, which contains around 2 million medicines in the country. Ivy leaves contain saponins (alpha-hederin and hederacoside C) that show promising, mucolytic, spasmolytic, bronchodilatory, and antibacterial effects. According to a 2003 meta-analysis of three blinded studies of children in 2003, the HIV preparations used were far superior to placebo.
One study compared ivy leaf spice drops with plapbo, another compared mold drops and a syrup tested in one drop.
The researchers concluded that the antiviral drug can improve respiratory function in children with chronic bronchitis, but the data were limited. In the review of a single double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 children aged 4 to 12 years with asthma received one drop of dried ivy (35 mg) or three or three times a day for three days. Five days before moving on to another treatment.
The superiority of the ivy leaf in space showed a slight improvement in airway resistance, residual volume and baseline of respiration compared to the third day after three hours in the morning.
Capsaicin from Cayenne Pepper
Experimental evidence suggests that capsicum frutescens, a key ingredient in capsicum frutescens, relieves airborne cell carcinoma from various mechanical and chemical stresses. This effect may be due to the stimulating substance P capsaicin (which normally increases blood flow and flow) in the respiratory nerves.
The respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts contain many P-containing neurons. The location of substance P and its physiological action are believed to play an important role in atrophic conditions such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, in these cases it may be necessary to deplete substance P.
Jujuba plum (Zizyphi fructus) is widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. It contains 100 to 500 nmol / g dry weight, a bronchitis stimulant, which is 10 times more potent than any other plant or animal cell in modern literature. It strongly supports its clinical use alongside the long history of the jujube plum.
(Tylophora asthmatica) is widely used in aerobic medicine for asthma and other respiratory disorders.
The mechanism of action of typhoid fever is unknown, but it has been reported to have antibacterial, especially typhoid, antihistamine, and antispasmodic activity, and it is believed to inhibit mast cell breakdown.
However, a more central mechanism may be responsible for the clinical consequences of asthma. Several double-blind clinical studies have shown typhoid fever to be effective. In a study of 135 patients, 200 mg of typhoid tablets were administered twice daily for six days, during which symptoms and respiratory function improved and for up to two weeks after treatment.
Side effects such as nausea and vomiting occurred in 9.8% of the typhoid group and 14% in the plasbo group. In another double-blind study of 103 patients, people who received 40 mg of dry typhoid fever in just six days had a significant improvement in asthma symptoms compared to the placebo group.
Of the 92 patients who received placebo, 31.6% had a complete and moderate improvement at the end of the first week. At the end of 4 weeks, their respective numbers were 32% and 23.8%, respectively. At 8 weeks, 23.8% and 8.4%; And 14.8% and 7.2% in 12 weeks.
The incidence of side effects such as nausea, partial loss of salt taste, and mild pain in the mouth was 16.3% in the typhoid group and 6.6% in the plasbo group. These results, as well as the results of an additional study, indicate that the benefits of typhoid fever are short-lived.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBE)
Ginkgo biloba contains a series of specialized terpene molecules known as ginkgolides, which are the key chemical mediator of FP in pigs, tumors, and allergies.
ginkgolides compete with PAF for junction stations and block various events created by PAF. Oral administration of ginkloids by mouth or inhalation has been shown to increase respiratory function and reduce bronchial reactions in several double-junction studies.
Treatment consisted of 120 mg of pure ginkgolides per day and is currently the most expensive to administer GBE with 24% gingo flavonglycosides and 6% total terpenoids.
Administration of aloe vera preparations may be effective for patients who are not dependent on corticosteroids. In one study, oral administration of aloe vera for six months was effective in treating asthma in people of all ages.
The product is made from fresh leaves stored in the dark for 4 days at 4 ° C. Replacing the leaves with dark and cold results in an increase in the polysaccharide fraction: 1 gram of raw material stored cold and dark 400 mg of neutral polysaccharide with only 30 mg of frozen or darkened leaves. The dose is 5 ml of aloe vera 20% solution twice a day for 24 weeks. Twenty-seven of the 27 patients (40%) without corticosteroid dependence felt better at the end of the study.
The mechanism of action is believed to be the restoration of the immune system and the strengthening of the immune system.
Coleus forskohlii can be especially helpful in asthma, because the active ingredient, forcholenin, has amazing effects on relaxing the bronchial muscles in asthma. However, these studies have used inhalation of pure formaldehyde.
The oral form of forskolin, a substance known as forskohlii, has similar bronchodilator effects. However, given the historical use of additional plants and methods, it seems likely.
Streamlined herb Boswellia Sartara provides anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, bronchial asthma was reduced by 70% by 40 megabytes of Boswellia glue three times a day for six weeks, but only 27% improved over the control group.
Improvements have been made in physical symptoms and symptoms such as shortness of breath, seizures, shortness of breath, and eosinophil counts.
Lifestyle control and control are important in managing asthma. It is important to identify and eliminate known causes of violence, and recognizing the first signs of violence can help prevent serious consequences.
Regular internal tests to measure lung function with a peak flow meter are helpful in monitoring. The handheld device measures how fast air escapes after a deep breath.
They can warn of an abnormal result or a series of changes so that appropriate action can be taken before symptoms appear. First, for several weeks, the test should be done at the same time each day to establish a record and adjust the flow rate as much as possible during medication adjustment to control symptoms and attacks.
The test should then be performed every morning and the volume recorded should be compared to the maximum known flow rate. Older children can take control of their situation with a little control.
Educating people with asthma and their families is key to promoting a safe, low-risk lifestyle. A written action plan with the healthcare provider’s instructions can describe appropriate action in a variety of situations.
The plan can specify exactly how to take the drug; The first signs of a significant change in the condition; What medications to take to control the attack; When you call the healthcare provider; When emergency treatment is needed; And what steps to take to provide a good personal environment and reduce or eliminate known triggers.
Young children, in particular, need close supervision from parents, and child care providers must be aware of the child’s asthma and prescription medications, and understand how to implement the action plan.
School nurses must be informed of the child’s symptoms and history in order to monitor activities and provide appropriate medication. Exercise is important for a child’s growth and general health, so a special dose may be prescribed rather than avoided. Some schools allow older children to breathe when needed.
As with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes, asthma must be controlled regularly to maintain a normal life. At least 50 percent of children are better, although the more severe the symptoms, the less likely they are to develop asthma. With management, asthma should not interfere with other routine and healthy activities.