Heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), is caused by a blockage of one or more arteries. Symptoms can include chest tightness and sweating, or about 15 percent have no symptoms, this is called a silent heart attack.
Heart attack, Damage to the heart is directly proportional to the number of muscles involved. It can be small or it can be large enough to cause sudden death. It can also cause long-term problems with heart failure and disability.
Heart failure is a major cause of death and disability, but paying attention to proper nutrition and exercise, and controlling blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking can reduce the risk of heart attack.
Let’s jump in to beware Heart attack signs and prevention’s perfectly –
Heart attack is a sudden manifestation of CAD. In people with CAD, fat, cholesterol, calcium, platelets, fibrin, and other plaques form in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The stones can be found in the arteries that feed only a small part of the heart muscle or in the main arteries responsible for blood flow to the large muscles of the heart.
Although these statues are stable or slow-growing in people with relatively stable CAD, heart failure can occur if one or more statues explode. When the coronary artery ruptures, blood flow to the heart canal can be blocked in one of two ways: until the umbilical cord remains in the small artery chamber, or a thrombus can form where the rest of the artery coronary artery is exposed to blood flow. He can.
Such blockage of one or more arteries prevents the diseased part of the heart from receiving adequate nutrition and oxygen, resulting in damage or death of the involved heart muscle. When the heart muscle of the ventricle is damaged or dies as a result of coronary artery disease, many problems soon develop.
The area where the ventricle is damaged can cause ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation to cause the heart and muscle to contract properly. And ventricular tachycardia can lead to a sudden heart attack and pulmonary edema or sudden death.
If a patient survives a severe heart attack, the heart can fully regain most of its pumping function if the heart is permanently damaged, but if a suitable area of the heart muscle is damaged or dies and is replaced, the heart will not be able to to lift normally through tissue.
Risk factors for heart attack are generally the same for CAD. Some risk factors, such as smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes, can help reduce or control the risk of heart attack.
Other vulnerabilities, such as age, gender, family history, and heredity, cannot be changed. Excessive alcohol or cocaine use also increases a person’s risk of coronary disease or heart attack.
The most common symptom of a heart attack is new or worse central chest pain. The pain is often described as compression, heaviness, or pressure and can radiate to one or both arms or back.
It can also be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, or sweating. Common symptoms of heart failure include discomfort in the jaw, neck, or ears and difficulty breathing. New: Anyone with chest pain or pressure should be evaluated immediately in the emergency room.
The first step in diagnosing heart failure is a brief physical exam. The initial evaluation focuses on the patient’s airway, breathing, and circulation (ABC). The heart is evaluated for pulmonary edema and the lungs are evaluated for cracks or rats that can be a sign of pulmonary edema from a severe heart attack. It is also important to evaluate for signs of stroke and signs or symptoms of shock or hypo perfusion (low blood pressure), such as shock, rash, paleness, or ashes.
The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most important test for measuring heart rate. Electrical impulses from heart to heart form paths along P, QRS, and T waves. The ST unit connects the QRS and T waves to the monitor.
Results that indicate a high heart rate on the ECG are new leadership defects such as ST segment height, Q wave, or LBBB. Reversal of the new T wave also indicates a heart attack (see chart on page 228). ACG The patient shows that he is having a heart attack that affects many of the muscles of the heart and may need to reopen blocked arteries or vessels.
This is called STEMI, and these patients are at high risk for long-term heart attack or seizures. In a patient with chest pain, the ECG may indicate unstable angina or NSTEMI, indicating a lack of ST division or ST segment change, due to partial blood flow or muscle partial cardiac.
However, up to 6% have chest pain and normal EGI. The absence of ECG changes does not completely cover the heartbeat, as patients may actually have a heart attack or unstable angina.
Blood tests can be used to check for a heart attack. Blood is taken to measure the level of certain enzymes released from the damaged heart tissue.
The most commonly measured enzymes are creatinine kinase (CK), CKMB, and Torponin T (TnT) and TorponinI (TnI). Because CK and CKMB are present in both the heart and skeletal muscles, high levels of total CK or CKMB are not relatively unique to heart failure, but CKMB is still the most commonly used blood test when recording heart rate.
In short, when a patient shows symptoms of heart failure, history and ECG. They are used to determine if the patient’s symptoms are: Heart attack from STEMI, unstable angina or heart disease from NSTEMI, or non-heart problems, or CAD.
Any patient with a heart attack is usually given oxygen quickly (to prevent the death of the heart muscle), given through a mask or small tubes in the nose, and given aspirin to help prevent bleeding. Clots
A drug to prevent further coagulation is also needed or given as an injection into the bloodstream or in the skin.
This requires urgent treatment to reduce the damage to the heart muscle and to re-open blocked arteries to prevent further complications.
One possible approach is to prescribe medication to reduce the risk of bleeding .
Another approach is to use angioplasty (a catheter inserted into the arteries of the foot to the heart) to locate blocked blood vessels or vessels and to restore blood flow by closing the bladder at the tip. Angioplasty catheter or by placing a rod in the vessel to keep it open.
A patient with chest pain and ischemic ECG changes, but no ST-elevation, may have unstable angina or NSTEMI due to partial blockage of the coronary arteries. Fibrinolytics are not given in this condition.
Necessary steps for patient evaluation include getting ECGs every few hours to find the most severe hospitalization changes, getting blood tests for cardiac enzymes such as CKMB, TnI, or TnT, as well as evaluating other factors for immunity to chest pain.
Although CAD cannot be completely ruled out based on emergency room evaluation, there is a high risk of sudden chest pain and irregular or undiagnosed ECG heart attack.
The assessment focuses on the risk factors for CAD and will provide further investigation to determine whether there is an underlying CAD. Exercise or chemical stress testing Exercise can be used to further assess a patient who is at high risk for chest pain and CAD.
An anxiety test can help determine the cause of chest pain or other symptoms. After initial stabilization and treatment, any patient who has had a heart attack or is suspected of having CAD should undergo a long-term heart disease risk test. Counseling to avoid smoking is one of the most important preventive measures.
Blood pressure and cholesterol levels should be measured and high blood pressure should be treated. Diabetes increases the risk of developing CAD and heart disease, so it requires control diabetic. Closely monitoring the rate and prompt treatment can help prevent severe pneumonia.
If a person has never had a heart attack before and needs immediate treatment, this is a promising experience. If there are no complications, the risk of another heart attack is reduced.
However, the view is also based on the extent of heart muscle damage. Fractures of the coronary arteries in the heart can lead to damage to the arteries, leading to death or ischemia.
A sudden death can result from a heart attack or a long-term heart attack.
Heart attack prevention is based on controlling the risk factors for CAD: Smoking is important, blood pressure, cholesterol and weight can be improved with a healthy diet and regular exercise.
Only one to two glasses of beer or wine a day should be consumed in moderation. Smoking increases susceptibility to CAD; The most important step in reducing the risk of heart attack is to stop smoking.
A regular exercise program and a healthy diet are also important to reduce the risk of CAD and heart disease. Everyone should try to get at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity on most days of the week, such as walking, cycling, running or swimming.
A healthy diet should include at least five fresh fruits and vegetables and plenty of fiber each day and avoid saturated fats. Blood pressure above 140/90 is considered high, and for most people, the goal is to lower it to 140/90.
People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should try to lower their blood pressure to 130/80 because their heart rate is so high. Cholesterol levels at one deciliter (mg / dL) or less LDL (low-fat protein or “bad”) is acceptable for people with CAD or heart disease.
People with moderate CAD or heart failure should try to keep LDL cholesterol below 130 mg / dL. Anyone with a high risk of CAD or heart attack and anyone with diabetes should try to keep their LDL cholesterol below 100 mg / dL because there are so many risk factors.
People who have had a heart attack in the past should also try to keep LDL cholesterol below 100 mg / dL. Exercise and a healthy diet for people who are at risk for heart disease may require medications that are not enough to control high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
High blood pressure can be treated with thyroid diuretics, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzymes or angiotensin receptor antagonists.
High cholesterol is usually treated with estrogen, although fiber products and other drugs are sometimes used instead. For men over the age of 50, taking one aspirin daily can reduce the risk of developing CAD or heart disease. Everyone who has had a heart attack should take aspirin daily to prevent further heart attacks.
CAD is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In 1990, CAD killed 6.3 million people worldwide. In 2003, the US population had 162 out of 100,000 deaths from CAD.
Unstable angina and NSTEMI hospitalization for 2.5 million a year. In the United States, about 900,000 people suffer from heart disease each year, of which 225,000 die.
About half of all heart attacks occur within an hour (sudden cardiac arrest).
Heart rate is higher among older people, higher in men than women, and lower in people with low social and economic status. Heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide from CAD.